The Coffee and Espresso Luvvers Alphabet – Everything you EVER wanted to know – but never dare ask!

Dec 8, 2011

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Glossary of coffee terms:

A

Acidity

Fine quality washed Central American and especially East African original coffees,exhibit this taster’s delight. Not typically a favoured characteristic in ESE espresso pods, but adds balance and interest.

Acyrlamide

A carcinogen that is created when any starchy food stuffs are roasted, fried, baked or toasted. Because espresso is roasted to a relatively dark degree, the level of acrylamide is significantly reduced.

Aftertaste

The taste sensation of the coffee and how long it lasts. This tends to be governed by degree of roast. Good, bad or indifferent it is subject to personal taste. This tends to be longer and more fulfilling with ESE espresso.

Aged Coffee

Typical of Monsoon Malabar and Old Brown Java where climactic conditions apparent during processing and storage influence the in cup flavour of the coffee – giving a musty, almost over rich flavour. Typical also of certified and past crop coffees, which are for example held by the ICO in New Orleans.

Arabica

Coffea Arabica is one of the three coffee types available…it is actually a varietal of the primary Robusta genus. Arabica accounts for upwards of 75% of world coffee supply. 100% Arabica is no guarantee of quality, provenance or cost…

Americano

An espresso lengthened with hot water to make a black coffee – not really different to a traditional filter coffee…but the Baristas love to make you think so. Try making one at home using an ESE espresso pod– it really is simple.

Arbitrage

The variance expressed in USD cent / Lb between the LIFFE Robusta and NYC Arabica market. Typically less the $1 … recent market moves have seen arbitrage peak near $2 / Lb.

Aroma

The fragrance produced by freshly brewed coffee. Aroma, along with flavor, acidity, and body, is one of the principal categories used by professional tasters in cupping, or sensory evaluation of coffee. ESE espresso pods are always fresh and so you can be
assured of tip top good aromas in your brew.

Aromo

The Internet’s No.1 roaster and retailer of ESE  easy serving espresso pods.

B

Balance

A tasting term applied to blended original coffee, in which a harmonious balance of the attributes listed above is achieved. Largely due to the skill and art of the roaster.

Barista

Italian for waiter! Love or  loath ’em they make your coffee…a great barista is the master of espresso and espresso based drinks, however increasingly equipment such a ‘Vittorio Alberto’ machines are making their supposed skill redundant. Equally the ESE espresso pod means that there are now many thousands of at home Baristas…give it a go!

Bitter

Bitterness is the taste perceived at the back of the tongue, that is, if you subscribe to the now defunct ‘Tasters Tongue’ as purported by Edward G Boring. Darker roasted coffees will deliver enhanced bitterness… an often misunderstood attribute which is an
important contributor to a fabulous espresso.However, over extract an espresso (brew for more than 28 > 30 seconds) and unwanted bitter / harsh notes become apparent.

Typically in the soluble manufacturing sector, cheaper instant coffees use the higher (and therefore more bitter and less flavorsome) coffee yields.

Blossom

Coffee blossom – The seasonal flowering of the coffee trees before they develop coffee cherries, but after pollination. The 2011 flowering and setting phase was a sight to behold in Brazil. However, many a slip between flowering and formation of cherries can
disturb the harvest.

Blue Mountain

Jamaica is the home of authentic Blue Mountain coffee. Sold in wooden barrels typically 15 or 30 kilos in size, it carries a significant price premium and is one of the world’s rarest and most expensive coffees…Ironically, more is sold than grown and exports in
the main end up in Japanese market place!

Blend

A mixture of two or more individual types of original coffee. The art of the blender and roaster is paramount in the coffee production process. All espressos are a blended
recipe… and although single origin is experiencing a resurgence, it remains
largely focused on Breakfast (with Kenyan or Colombian) and after dinner
(typically with Costa Rican). We have taken much care over our ESE espresso pod
blends…we hope you like ‘em!

Blenders

In factory (if blended before roast) three methods of bean blending are typically used – Drum Blending / Conical Screw Blending and Counter Spiral Blending.

BAR / BBR

Blend after roast or Blend before roast…I suppose the after roast is the traditionalist’ preference….the reality is this is a production nuance that most consumers and connoisseurs will never notice.

Blend after Roast also includes a process of re mixing the roasted beans called Proportioning

Bourbon Arabica

Bourbon is one of the most traditional varietals of Arabica and produces fantastic fine cup coffees.

Body

The sensation of heaviness, richness, thickness and associated texture of the sampled coffee. Body, along with flavour, acidity, and aroma, forms the bedrock of a professional cupping, or sensory evaluation / olfactory review.Again a good ESE espresso pod should exhibit plenty of body.

Bosch
Type of valve applied to the finished coffee bag to enable naturally occurring CO2 to be released – Vipf and Canal valves are also commonly used in the industry- See also Goglio

Brazil

The number one producer and exporter of coffee in the world. Brazil is used as a key component in almost all coffee blends.  Brazil produces both Conillon Robusta (c 15 m bags pa) and Arabica ( c 55m bags pa). Often under rated, there are some excellent fine cups and single estate coffees to be found… and much of the world’s supply of accredited coffees hails from Brazil. A good Brazil original coffee now commands a premium to many traditionally superior / more expensive original coffees.

Bulked

Most coffee from a single origin is bulked from a whole variety of regional sources and farms (the average and the good) and then graded according to size, appearance and taste.

C

Cafetiere (French press, Press pot)

A simple and effective method of brewing fresh coffee at home, all that is required is freshly drawn and heated water, great coffee and a clean cafetiere for a satisfying coffee.

Cafe Latte (See Latte)

Caffeine

An odourless, bitter alkaloid responsible for the stimulating effect of coffee and tea. Robusta coffee contains nearly twice as much as Arabica coffee, and tea significantly more by weight than any coffee!

Cappuccino

An espresso based drink, that when ‘perfetto’, should be around a third espresso, a third steamed milk and a third foamed milk in an 8oz cappuccino cup. It should appear with a white, creamy centre and brown rim. Named after the hooded Capuchin Monks.

Caramelisation (See Roasting)

Carbon Dioxide Process (See Decaf)

Caturra Arabica

A widely seen Arabica varietal. Particularly popular in Latin America.

Chemical (Methyl Chloride) Process (see Decaf)

Chaff

The development of dust, small particles and remaining silver skin which is removed from the bean during the roasting process

Cherry

The common term for the fruit of the coffee tree. Each cherry contains two normal coffee beans, or occasionally one Peaberry. When ripened, the coffee cherries are usually red (although there are some yellow / orange varietals). For great coffee, all of
the cherries must be harvested at the peak of ripeness.

CIF

(Cost/Insurance/Freight) The typical bases upon which the delivery of green beans to the roaster are costed.

Other variants include – FOT (CIF + Beans out of warehouse)

And FIF – All costs delivered to factory door

Coffeeoil

In total 8 > 15% of the finished roasted coffee bean is a selection of fats and oils. The
collective term for these substances is ‘coffee oil’. Only 0.1 > 0.8% of these oils and fats are realised in the finished liquid beverage.

Cooperative Coffee

Cooperatives are a great way of allowing smallholder farmers to access the market place by combining their coffees, efforts and marketing ability under a membership structure.

Coyote

The Latin American term for the middlemen coffee traders who buy coffee from small farmers to sell to larger coops and exporters.

Crack

During the early stage of the roasting process, at around 150 degrees centigrade, the green bean will physically crack. The centre ‘cut’ will open, indicating that the ‘cooking’
process is well underway and that the endothermic reactions of the roasting process
have reached their maximum point.

Crema

The crema is the beautiful result of a well made espresso. It is the, creamy brown layer that appears on the surface of the espresso, trapping the exquisite aromas beneath. It is a combination of the emulsified coffee oils (unique to the extraction method of espresso – although Rooibos tea can produce similar results if correctly milled) and
tiny trapped bubbles of carbon dioxide. An ESE espresso pod is guaranteed to be
fresh and produce a fine and luxuriant crema.

Cup of Excellence

The Cup of Excellence program seeks to find the very finest coffees from a variety of coffee producing countries in Latin America and Africa. Any farmer can enter, and coffee entries are subject to several rounds of tasting and final judging by an international jury of professional coffee cuppers. The highest scoring coffees are awarded the prestigious Cup of Excellence.

Cupping

Procedure used by professional tasters to perform sensory evaluation of original and blended coffees. The beans are ground; water is poured over the grounds, which are then allowed to stand before the crust of ground coffee is removed. The resulting liquor is tasted both hot and as it cools, allowing the coffee to exhibit its full dimension of
taste attributes.

D

Decaffeinated

Roasted coffee which contains less than 0.1 % of its naturally occurring caffeine is classified as decaffeinated. Decaffeination is achieved via one of three methods – The Chemical Process (usually using Methylene Chloride or Ethyl Acetate), which is most
popular , the critical Carbon Dioxide Process which uses carbon dioxide to remove
the caffeine under pressure and the Swiss Water Process method which uses the
concept of “electrically charged water” and active carbon electrodes to wash out the caffeine. All methods of decaffeination affect the ultimate taste of the coffee…..leaving a blander / steely flavour profile. Why not try Buzz Lite from our ESE espresso pod range?

De-Gas

Post roasting the whole beans are allowed to naturally de-gas for 6 > 12 hours. Roasted beans naturally emit CO2 and if this is not allowed to dissipate then the consumer packaging blows up into a pillow….

Additionally, it is important to note that freshly roasted beans DO NOT taste superior to beans of one month age…. in fact, enabling the beans to rest in pack for a few week allows ‘ aroma’ oils to settle – the result a less ‘ green’ in cup experience.

Differential

To the base New York cent / Lb price a “differential” needs to be added, this being the +ve or –ve at which a particular original coffee trades vs the market price. The differential reflects both the perceived taste superiority and supply / demand fundamentals.

Djimmah

An Ethiopian regional denomination – now trademarked following the ‘Black Gold’ Movie expose.

Double Shot

A double espresso, using a minimum of 14g of coffee.

Double shot easy serving espresso pods are available….but to be honest the aficionado would never order a double espresso!

Drum Roasting (see Roasting)

Dry Natural Coffee

Often misunderstood and considered inferior to the washed preparation– the Dry method of cleaning coffees is practiced in those territories where traditionally water supply was/is an issue. (Brazil/ Ethiopia etc)

Typically, coffee is dried on concrete patios or on tables…the sun, assisting together with frequent agitation, whether by hand or rake, the removal of the cherry pulp from the coffee bean.

When done well, this “natural” method lends the coffee more wild, gamey and winey flavours and a full bodied, sweeter taste.

E

Earthiness

Either a taste defect or a desirable, exotic characteristic, depending upon opinion- Typical of Sumatran coffees and poorly managed dry preparation coffees.

Espresso

Used to describe both a roast of coffee (see Espresso Roast) and a method of brewing in which hot water is forced under pressure (typically 12 – 15 bar) through a compressed ‘puck’ of finely ground coffee. The easy serving espresso pod revolutionized the art of making the perfetto espresso.

Estate Coffee

Often used to describe coffee plantations in Kenya.

Ethiopia

Attributed as the home land of Khaldi, the herdsman credited with discovering coffee. A significant producer of Arabica coffees – much from small farms, or plots, often farmed within the wild forest environ. Some of the world’s finest coffees come from here, including Yirgacheffe and Mocha. A major origin of choice for our high street American friends….

ESE – Easy Serving Espresso Pod

Originally invented in the late 1950s and successfully commercialized by Illy in the late 1980s, the 44mm ESE Easy Serving Espresso pod has been a revolution in the single serve espresso market. Typically, used today on the high Street for unusual espresso requests or decaffeinated coffee… we can expect this trend to catch on in home.

EVOH

A multi ply plastic and polyester packaging material popular in the coffee trade which offers up to 12 months barrier property. Popular in the Nordic market place where it is
considered less environmentally damaging than Aluminum foil

F

Fair Trade

Over rated and un auditable ‘worry beads’ for wealthy consumers in the Northern hemisphere….or genuinely a force for good..? Managed by a raft of bureaucrats at FLO in Berlin and Bonn, the Fair Trade Minimum price is now an irrelevance with open market commodity prices now far in excess. We hear rumors of many accredited farmers now simply selling their beans on the open market much to FLO’s annoyance.

Fermentation

The process by which the majority of cherry pulp is removed from the green beans

Filter Coffee

A classic method of brewing coffee, traditional in Nordic territories – when done well, a fabulous cup of coffee is produced…watch this space for the resurgence of fine filter coffees.

Finish

The sensory experience of coffee just as it is swallowed. Many coffees transform from first impression on the palate to finish. Try our ESE espresso pods for a taste of maximum finish….

Flavour

Flavour in coffee is the combined sensory impression of both aroma and taste.

Flat White

The espresso-milk based drink from New Zealand. Really nothing more than a marketing gimmick… the milk is textured and thick rather than simply having a bubbly feel… Like a latte- stronger and more milk foam! Try your hand at home using Aromo easy serving espresso pods

Flaked

A process in which ground coffee is rolled rather than ground up. The result of flaking is to increase the surface area of the coffee particulate, therefore increasing liquor yields per gram of coffee.

Fluid Bed Roasting (see Roasting)

Four C’s

Common Code for the Coffee Community – The base ‘accreditation’ scheme.
Largely managed via Neumann Hamburg and adhered to by most major roasters it provides a basic level of social and economic ‘pillars’ to protect the origin farmers.

Freezer

This is where you should store open bags of WHB and R&G coffees! This is what the real experts do…. yes – ideally use the beans. If not, keep them cool/ out of sunlight and away from strong odours. Despite the fact that coffee is hygroscopic the Freezer is still the best place to keep it fresh.

French Press (see Cafetiere)

French Coffee

Used to describe a traditional blend of coffee and chicory.

French Roast

A particularly dark, continental style roast – the beans may well reach 240 > 250 degrees centigrade and be roasted for over 20 minutes- very dark!

Fully Washed (See Washed)

Fundamentals

The normal drivers of a typical market Eg: Frost – Drought – Earthquake – Meteorological phenomena. Today speculators and Funds (once of the equity markets) drive coffee and most other soft commodity markets at will.

G

Goglio Luigi( Fresco) Valve

One of the many types and brands of valves applied to finished coffee packs. Also available are the SIG valve, Wico WIPF and Hesser. Believe it or not, if no valve were applied to freshly roasted and packed whole bean coffee, the bag would burst after 8 to 10 days.

Grade

Market differentiation of coffees from the same origin. Grade can reflect a factual variance, such as Central American Hard Bean and High Grown vs Strictly Hard Bean and Strictly High Grown…Or can reflect the in origin graders opinion, as in the case of Brazil with Good Cup and Fine Cup denominations.

Green Coffee

Unroasted coffee – typically containing 9 >13% moisture – which is lost during the roasting process.

Grinding

The method by which beans are ground to enable the extraction / percolation, via a variety of methods, of the coffee liquor.One of the few areas where the skill of the barista – but more importantly the quality of the grinder used can make a big difference to the quality of the drink. In factory, cryogenically cooled grinding plates are
increasingly prevalent and ensure that minimal, or no heat is applied to the
roasted coffee prior to brewing, thereby preserving maximum flavour.  The espresso grind used in ESE serving espresso pods is key to the production of a fine espresso with thick crema.

Grounds

Spent or brewed coffee…from the espresso handle often referred to as a puck. Now increasingly used, together with a patented resin, to produce building materials and furniture.Use an ESE easy serving espresso pod and the grounds are contained in the filter pouch – ready for composting – with no mess and no fuss!

H

Hard Bean (HB)

Coffee grown at relatively high altitudes of 1000 > 1500 m plus. Consensus has it, that beans grown at or above this altitude, mature more slowly and are therefore harder and denser, producing superior liquor. Also Strictly Hard Bean which is considered the superior of HB. We use these qualities in our ESE pods.

High Yield

Process whereby the green bean is immediately exposed to very high roasting temperatures c 190 > 200 degrees and is then taken to 220 degrees for a very short period – Perhaps only 90 seconds.

The affect of this is that the bean ‘blows up’ in a similar fashion to popcorn, increasing the surface area of the bean and thereby improving liquor yields per gram.

I

Italian Roast

Beans are roasted up to 230 degrees centigrade for typically 18 > 22 minutes…lighter than French roast…but marginally darker than a Vienna roast and noticeably darker than your typical supermarket roast. Typical roast loss at these colours is +20%

Beware though of high street cafes selling roast colour as a benefit! The darker the coffee the more powerful it is… and the less that then needs to be sold to give the consumer the same taste kick! Aromo easy serving espresso pods tend to be an Italian or French roast.

International Coffee Partners

Initiative of leading European coffee roasters (Tchibo, Lavazza, Lofberg, Paulig) and Neumann Kaffee Gruppe which directly supports farmer communities via project work, focussed on sustainable framing and farmer community welfare.

J

Jamaican Blue Mountain

Supplied typically in small barrels of 15 or 30 kilo and considered to be one of the world’s finest coffees, with huge differentials to match. The biggest market for this origin is Japan. Perhaps unsurprisingly more is sold, than is actually harvested, of this Grand Cru of green beans!

K

Kenya

Is one of the finest coffee producing countries in the world, supplying green beans with a truly unique light, acidic and fruit laden flavour. Numerous grading systems are in place to protect the Grand Cru production and prices reflect the quality and relative scarcity.

Kiln Drying

Used historically in East African origins, as a method of cooking the beans prior to consumption. Beans can reach in excess of 100 degrees centigrade… lower than today’s roasting temperature – but sufficient to enable some chemical  and physical change to take place within the bean.

Kopi Luwak

You already know this one…! The excreted green bean from the marsupial Paradoxurus, which resides in Indonesian Archipelago specifically on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi. Some estimates suggest as little as 500 Lb pa is ‘produced’ or collected of this strange bean.

KRAV

Nordic region organic accreditation standard / system

L

Latte

A serving of espresso, combined with about three times as much hot milk, topped with froth.

Latte Art

Barista’s fiddling with the foamed and textured coffee in your drink to make interesting shapes and logos. (Yawn!)

Liberica

The third genus of coffee, accounting for c 1 % of world production Coffea Liberia (or Liberian coffee) is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is a coffee that is found in Liberia, West Africa, larger than Arabica beans it tastes not dissimilar to Robusta.

Lot

For New York C traded Arabica – 18 MT / 300 x 60 kilo lots

For London Futures Traded (LIFFE) Robusta – 10 MT lots

M

Mild’s

Mild’s or Special Mild’s are Central American derived mixed lots of lower graded or ungraded coffees. Typically, from fly crops and unsold Lots. Used simply as a blending agent in middling quality blends – especially roast and ground product, to deliver enhanced flavour characteristics to an otherwise uninspiring blend.

Milling

Mechanical removal of the dry parchment skin from wet-processed coffee beans, or the entire dried fruit husk from dry-processed beans.

Monsooned Malabar / Mocha/ Java (See Aged Coffees)

Mucilage

The Pulp or fruit of the cherry, which is found between the cherry skin and the parchment which covers the coffee bean.

N

New Crop

Coffee delivered for roasting soon after harvesting and processing. Coffees are at their brightest (or rawest) and most acidy in this state. New crop varies of course by origin territory and harvesting time of year. The most typical example is in the Central American Flavor Family where Peru/ Honduras are switched at Christmas for New Crop.

New York

The New York “C”/ ICE – Trades Arabica coffees in US cents/ Lb 5 days / week electronically. Purchased in 18 MT / 300 x 60 kilo lots.

Nitrogen

The best production equipment allows for product to be packed under nitrogen… or vacuumed. Ignore the rubbish on the internet which states this adulterates the coffee and is for industrial coffee production only! The reality is most ‘artisan’ roasters can’t afford this equipment! If they could they would have it! The natural enemy of coffee is oxygen…..Packing at atmosphere is a waste of time… coffee will be stale in a matter of a few weeks. Nitrogen is also used to pulse roasted beans around the factory EG: From roaster to grinder.

Non Coffee Cost

All costing elements excluding the physical coffee.

O

Omni-Grind Coffee

A term used to denote that the coffee is a suitable grind for most brewing purposes…but typically it refers to a grind in which the particulate spectrum is evenly distributed.

Organic Coffee

Coffee that has been independently certified, by a third-party, as having been grown and processed without the use of pesticides, herbicides, or similar chemicals.

Over-Extracted

Over extracted coffee has been over brewed, as in the example of an espresso allowed to brew for much more than 30 seconds… harsh and bitter notes are realized.

Ochratoxin

A mould produced as / when green bean sits in container in the tropics and ‘sweats’.

P

Patio

Drying court where dry process beans are laid to dry in the tropical sun.Typically, each patio represents an individual lot and is about the size of a tennis court.

Parchment

Wet processed green coffee retains its parchment, or a silver skin, which will need to be removed in an additional cleaning process of dry milling.

Past Crop

Prior years’ coffee harvest…usually held in international stock warehouses and used as ‘mop’ to ease supply and demand fundamentals and also as a cheaper blending variable in middling quality blends. Different to aged coffees such as the Java brow and
Monsooned Malabar.

Pergamino (See Parchment)

Spanish term for coffee still in parchment

Peaberry

A small, round bean, formed when only one seed, or coffee bean, rather than the usual two, develops at the heart of the coffee fruit. Peaberry beans are often separated from normal beans and sold as a distinct grade of a given coffee.

pH

Typical pH for a supermarket coffee blend is between 5.2 (mild) and 4.9 (slightly acid).

Polishing

An optional procedure at the end of coffee processing and milling (carried out both at origin and North European Port)  in which the dried, shipment-ready beans are subjected to polishing by agitation, to remove any remaining silver skin, and other foreign bodies ( sticks / stones etc) . Supposedly, this process improves the appearance of the bean, it certainly improves yield losses and has no impact what so ever upon finished flavour.

Pulp

Process of removing the outermost skin of the coffee cherry or fruit.

See Wet-Processed Coffee.

Probat

Dutch manufacturers of the world’s finest roasting equipment – closely followed by their sister organization Neuhaus Neotech…don’t accept imitations! Others include Gothot and Lilla.

Q

Quakers

Defective coffee beans that fail to roast properly, remaining stubbornly light-coloured – although this can be due to un-ripened beans being processed, is also typical of  Robusta / Arabica mixed coffee, in which the Robusta beans may achieved a lighter roasted hue.

Quench

Water added at the end of the roasting process – usually within the drum – to immediately end the roasting or cooking process and to ensure optimal roasting conditions are realized. Industrial scale roasters will quench sufficiently to add back up to 5% water content to the bean- this being the legal maximum ( Green bean typically contains 8 > 13% natural moisture). Aromo easy serving espresso pods
are air cooled after roast. We believe this keeps the bean fresher ( as coffee
is hygroscopic) and it also aids the development of crema.

R

Rain Forest Alliance

Accreditation scheme which has as its focus the environmental impact, in origin, of coffee agronomy and a commitment that all farming practices should be sustainable. Considered the entry point for an off the shelf ethical coffee ‘stamp’, with roasters able to use the mark in coffee blends containing 35 > 90% RFA sourced coffees.

Raised Beds

Dry method preparation typically used in Ethiopia where the beans are allowed to dry on raised tables / off the ground therefore alleviating any chance of adulteration.

Ristretto

The Italian for ‘restricted’, a Ristretto is the strongest and most concentrated espresso drink. It is made with about half the amount of water (20 ml) but the same amount of coffee as a regular espresso.  ESE pods are ideal for trialing and sampling the delights of Ristretto in the comfort of your own home.

Roasting

The method by which the green beans are cooked. Typically, convection or conduction, or a mixture of the two ‘heating’ and cooking methodologies are used. Drum is the preferred method of the traditionalists and is a dying art… but it is a known fact that drum roasted beans are superior with a deeper, more complete and thorough cook, which improves crema production and in cup colour.

Roast Loss

The weight of bean lost during the roasting or cooking process. Beans are measured into the roaster and again post roast. Typical roast losses range from 15 > 18%, with traditional espresso nudging over 20%.

Robusta

Robusta coffee or Coffea canephora, is a variety of coffee which has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa. It is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. Vietnam is the world’s largest producer today, supplying c 18 > 20 m bags annually. Easier to care for and grown at lower altitudes than Arabica, the Robusta bean is not favoured for its taste nuances, more for the production of crema in espresso and as a cheaper blending option. Often maligned there are some exceptional
Robusta original coffees available – such as Angolan. We use Vietnam and Ugandan Robusta in our easy serving espresso.

Roll Mill

Industrial grinder sometimes with cooled grinding or face plates.

Roya

Colombian for Rust… a disease common to most original coffee cultivators across the globe.

S

Sack

A burlap, hessian, or jute sack for holding and transporting green coffee. Weight and size varies by origin, but typically is 60kg (Brazil, Africa, the Far East), 69kg (primarily
Central America) and 70kg (Colombia).

Santos

Brazilian origin – a catch all for Good and Fine Cup coffees

Screen Size

The means by which the size and therefore relative scarcity and price of beans is graded. Typically, beans grade from a 12 (a Brazil grinder) through to a 17/18 screen… Mexican Maragogype is often 20+ and is highly prized…although bean size does not affect liquor. Screen sizes are measured in 64’s of an inch – so an 18 screen bean is
18/64 of an imperial inch in size.

Shade Grown Coffee

Coffees cultivated under the shade of another larger tree…..typically banana.

Strictly Hard Bean) See Hard Bean

Strictly High Grown) See High Grown

Sourness

Unpleasant flavour which has a sharp, astringent taste. Different from acidity, sometimes associated with over-fermented coffee.

Stale

Coffee that has been exposed to oxygen for too long becomes flat and has a cardboard like taste.

Stomach Friendly / Steamed Coffees

Original coffees which have been steam cleaned prior to roasting to remove irritants thought harmful to the stomach. Put simply steamed coffee is green coffee beans which are treated or washed with saturated steam under pressure (1 > 3 bar) and with an increased humidity level of 6 > 12 % over the course of approximately 1 hour. Steaming supposedly removes irritants (other than the caffeine you’ll be pleased to hear!) which may cause, or exacerbate stomach ache, heart burn and acid indigestion. Also used in the soluble coffee industry to ‘improve’ Robusta and other lower grade coffees.

Sun Dried Coffee (See dry method)

Swiss Water Process (See Decaf)

Sweet

Smooth and palatable coffee that is free from defects and harsh flavours

T

Tamp / Tamper

To squeeze, or gently compact and compress the espresso grind into the group handle prior to extraction.

Terroir

In espresso brewing, the small, pestle-like device with a round, flat end used to distribute and compress the ground coffee inside the filter basket.Use an ESE espresso pod and none of this equipment or hassle is required!

Torrefacto

Iberian specialty, where beans are part roasted (drum) and then sugar or molasses is added usually at rates of 5 > 15%. The result is a beautiful shiny bean… and a marginally sweeter espresso. Traditionally, used to make poorer quality beans look good!

Tropics

All (or the vast majority) of coffees are grown between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. There are an estimated 12 trillion coffee tress. New original territories outside of the tropics are now appearing- such as South Africa.

U

Under-extracted

Coffee which is typically weak and watery…..Having not had sufficient time or pressure to be fully extracted – The liquor will be insipid and uninspiring.

UTZ ( Utz Kepah)

Popular accreditation scheme in Nordic and Russia/ CIF territories. The major element of this mark is the guarantee of provenance and  the ability of the consumer to trace their individual pack of coffee back to its originating farm via an on pack bar code.

V

Vacuum Packed

Coffee packed in vacuum chamber- no gas or valve therefore required- and easily identifiable as a solid brick pack.

Viennese Coffee

A blended coffee mix roasted with Fig…Typical of the British coffee market in the 1970s > 1980s. Fig was originally used as a cost saving measure – but ironically, today, the fig component costs more than the coffee and Viennese is now a rarity.

Whole Bean Coffee

Coffee that has been roasted but not yet ground.

X/Y

Grading used for green coffees sourced from Papua New Guinea

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